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替代简介_替代个人资料_替代微博

2016-11-26 10:11:42 科学百科 阅读 2 次

名词性替代/替代 编辑

用于名词性替代的词语主要有one/ONES, that/those, the same, the kind, the sort, either, neither, 等。 

one, ones

a. one/ones可以指人或物
1)只能替代单数/复数可数名词。例如:
--Give Joan the red cup and take the blue one for yourself.
--I’m having a drink. Would you like one too ?
--There are good films as well as bad ones.
--A mortal blow is one that kills.
2)one/ones和它们所替代的名词词组中心词的“数”可以不一致;或在句法功能上也可能不一致。 例如:
--If you want to buy an electric heater, you may be interested in this one in the window.
--Compare the new edition with the old ones.
--Have you any books on farming ? I want to borrow one.
--Do you see those gentlemen over there ? The one with gray hair is my father.
3) one/ones 一般带修饰语,它们和所替代的名词中心词所指不一定是同一对象,这是替代词one/ones用法上的一个重要特征。例如:
--She bought a cotton dress and a silk one.
--This chapter is much longer than the preceding ones.
--There are only hard chocolates left; we’ve eaten all the soft ones.
4) one/ones后面常跟有修饰语或形容词从句。例如:
--Which poem ? The one they were talking about yesterday.
--My shoes are similar to the ones you had on yesterday.
--Compare this picture with the one painted by your brother.
--This room and the one upstairs are well furnished.
--This house built of bricks is more durable than the one over there made of wood.
b. one/ones 的省略
1)当this/those, that/those与one/ones连用,表达比较或选择的含义时,one/ones可以省略。 例如:
--This chair is too low. I’ll sit in that (one).
--I like this (one) best.
但是,当this/those, that/those后跟有形容词,此时的one/ones不可以省略。如:
--I like this blue one/these blue ones.
2)替代词one/ones在形容词比较级或最高级以及某些限定词如this, which, 序数词等后面可省略。例如:
--I can get you several very sharp ones, but this is the best (one) I have.
--Of all the boys in the class, John is the tallest (one).
--Here are all the pictures. Which (one, ones) do you like best ?
--Some of the answers were correct, but I don’t remember which (ones). 

that, those

a. that/those 总是伴随着限制性的后置修饰语,分别等于the one 和the ones。that只能指物,those是复数替代形式,可以指人,也可指物。例如:
--The paintings of Gauguin’s Tahiti period are more famous than those he painted in France.
--The explorers wrote two very popular books: that on travels, and that on Arctic life.
--His last two books are a great success as compared with those he wrote earlier.
b. that 也可用于替代不可数名词(但是the one则不能)。例如:
--The victim’s own blood was of a different blood group from that found on the floor.
--The best coal is that from Newcastle.
--His description didn’t answer to that of the thief.
--Our tea is of a better quality than that which the buyers imported from other origins.
注:that作为替代形式,它几乎不与关系代词that连用,但是,those that的结合是通用的。

the same, the kind, the sort

a. kind, sort通常替代不可数名词。例如:
--American food is not the same as the English kind.
--Slang disappears quickly, especially the juvenile sort.
b. the same 的替代用法
1) the same可用作整个名词词组的替代词,通常指物,但与它所替代的名词词组并非共指同一对象。例如:
--A: Can I have a cup of black coffee with sugar, please ?
--B: Give me the same, please.
--A: I’ll have two poached eggs on toast, please.
--B: I’ll have the same.
注:
i)the same一般不可以再带前置修饰语,但可以带表示保留或条件的后置修饰语,例如:
--A: I’d like a cup of tea.
--B: I’d like the same with milk but without sugar.
--A: I’ll have two poached eggs on toast, please.
--B: I’ll have the same but fried.
ii)在规章等正式文体中,有时也可以和它所替代的词语共指同一对象。例如:
--The society shall keep minutes of its proceedings, which shall be available for public inspection. From time to time it shall publish the same.
2) the same还可以替代用作补语,表示当前特性的形容词短语、介词短语或比较结构等。例如:
--Yesterday I felt under the weather, and today I feel the same
--The soup smells delicious, and the turkey smells the same.
--Charles is now an actor. Given half a chance I would have been the same. (the same = an actor)
--A: John sounded rather regretful.
--B: Yes, Mary sounded the same. (the same = rather regretful)
3)the same 的另一个作用是替代一个名词性分句,尤其在say之后。例如:
--A: (I say) Oxford is likely to win the next boat race.
--B: I say the same. (= that Oxford is likely to win the next boat race, too)
--A: John thought it was impossible.
--B: Yes, I thought the same. (= that it was impossible)
注:在另一些搭配中the same 可表示上下文中的某个过程。例如:
--A: I lost my way in the galleries.
--B: The same happened to me. (= I also lost my way in the galleries.)
--A: That noise really unnerves me.
--B: Yes, it does the same to me too. (does the same = unnerves me).

不定代词替代

例如:
--Many children learn to read quite quickly, but some (= some children) need special instruction.
--You told me there were three pictures by Van Gogh in the exhibition. But I didn’t see any (of his
pictures).
--The boys applied for a scholarship. Each (of them) was able to present excellent references.
--If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.
--Either (of them) will be satisfactory.

动词性替代/替代 编辑

作为替代用法的do叫作代动词(pro-verb),其用法有二:一是替代动词词组即整个谓语,一是替代动词词组的中心词即谓语动词。

do替代动词词组的用法

a. do的形式必须受主语人称和数的制约,并且有现在时和过去时的形式变化。例如:
--She hoped that he would search the room carefully before her arrival but he didn’t do so.
--Martin drives a car, and his sister does, too.
--The door was falling to pieces. The windows were doing too. (doing =falling to pieces)
--A: The children work very hard in the garden.
--B: They must do. (do= work hard in the garden)
b. do so既可以替代动-宾谓语结构,也可以替代动-状谓语结构;还可以采取非限定形式。例如:
--He said he would tell me the news, but he didn’t do so (= tell me the news.)
--A: Jane is crying for some more cake in the kitchen.
--B: Yes, but her little brother isn’t doing so (= crying for some more cake.)
--The boys played doctors and nurses. We watched them doing that (= playing doctors and nurses), but they wanted us to do so (= to play doctors and nurses), too.
--As no one else has succeeded in doing so, I shall attempt to solve the mystery myself. (= solving the mystery)
c. do so与do the same, do it, do that交替使用。
1) 有时,do so 与do the same可以交替使用。例如:
--Mother cleaned the room and I did the same. (= …and I did so, too.)
--He began to write science articles for the newspaper and told me to do the same (= …and told me to do so, too.)
2) 当do so替代动宾结构时,it或this/that可以取代so。不过,it系指具体事物,that/this则口气 较重。例如:
--John is going to make the experiment and he wanted me to do it, too.
--They played cards after dinner and we wanted them to do that.
3) 当do so, do that, do it, do the same 等用于疑问句、否定句,或用于强调口气时,它们可以与助动词(包括助动词do)配合使用。例如:
--A: Do they go to work by train ?
--B: Yes, but we don’t do so.
--A: Mary is paying for her own ticket.
--B: Yes, but Joan isn’t doing that/isn’t doing the same/isn’t doing so.
d. do 与so用在一起,构成两个句型:“so + do + 主语”和“so + 主语 + do”。这两个句型常用于简短回答。
1) 在“so + do + 主语”句型当中,so的意义相当于in the same way; 作简短回答表示同样看法时常用。例如:
--My brother caught a cold, and so did my sister. (= My sister caught a cold, too.)
--They play cards after dinner, and so do we. (= We also play cards after dinner.)
--A: Moths fly about at night.
--B: So do bats. (= Bats fly about at night, too.)
2) 在“so + 主语 + do”句型当中,so的意义相当于indeed, certainly;对别人的话作出肯定反应时常用。例如:
--A: The students work hard.
--B: So they do. (= Certainly they work hard.)
--A: He looks very pale.
--B: So he does. (= He looks very pale indeed.)
--A: Father, you promised.
--B: Well, so I did! (= Certainly I promised.)

do替代动词词组中心词的用法

do作这种用法时通常都是实义动词,若及物,需跟宾语;也可以与情态助动词连用;在疑问和否定结构中,应引入助动词do的适当形式。例如:
--The production increases as it has done (= increased) for the last few Years.
--She plays the piano better than she does (= plays) the guitar.
--A: Mary studies modern history and doesn’t do (= study) modern languages.
--B: Does she do (= study) ancient history, too ?
注:
i) 动词性替代在口语中比在书面语中用得多,在英国英语中比在美国英语中用得多。
ii) doing so的组合可倒置为so doing。如:
--Roberts was rounding up the cattle. When asked why he was so doing, he replied: “Orders are orders.”
iii) 在带to的不定式结构中,do和so可以倒置(少见,属于正式语体)。如:
--To do so (= So to do) is to betray the confidence of their readers.
iv)so还可以作补足语,替代形容词、形容词短语或者名词短语。如:
--Prices at present are reasonably stable, and will probably remain so.
--If he’s a criminal, it’s his parents who have made him so.
v) 还有too much so, so much so, more so和less so的替代形式。如:
--Although the poor girl was exhausted, she was less so than we feared.
--The weather was hot in Cairo---so much so, that we stayed indoors all day.

分句性替代/替代 编辑

so和not替代that-从句
a. 在believe, expect, suppose, think, guess, imagine, reckon, suspect, presume 和it appears/ seems之后,既可以用so也可以用not来替代that-从句。
1) so替代肯定从句。例如:
--A: Oxford is likely to win the next boat race.
--B: All my friends say so.
--A: Many people believe that the international situation will deteriorate.
--B: My father thinks so, but I believe not.
--A: Will Tom be at the party ?
--B: I expect so/ suppose so/ think so./ I think he will.
2) 这里的否定式有两种:一是动词的否定式 + so构成;一是动词的肯定式 + not构成。例如:
--A: Will the scheme be a success ?
--B: I don’t believe so/ expect so/ suppose so/ think so.
--A: Are they making good progress ?
--B: It doesn’t seem so.
--A: It won’t take long, will it?
--B: No, I suppose not. / I don’t suppose so.
注:
i) so和not一般不能用于诸如agree, know, (be) sure等词之后。例如,不可以说*I’m sure so.//
*I doubt so.// *I know so.// *Why do you ask so ?// *He said not.// *He told me not.
ii) So it appears 和So it seems很常见。
b. hope和be afraid (= be sorry to say)之后能用so或not。例如:
--A: Has the news reached home yet ?
--B: I’m afraid so./ I’m afraid not.
--A: Is Peter coming with us ?
--B: I hope so.
但是,这里的否定式是动词的肯定式 + not构成。例如:
--A: Have you got a work permit ?
--B: I’m afraid not.
--A: Will it rain tomorrow ?
--B: I hope not.
c. say和tell + 宾语之后能用so和not。例如:
--A: Jack hasn’t found a job yet.
--B: He told me so yesterday.
--A: John is leaving next week.
--B: So I’ve been told.”
--A: How do you know there is going to be a demonstration ?
--B: Jack said so. / Jack told me so.
至于tell的否定形式,只有否定式 + so这一种结构。例如:
--Tom didn’t tell me so.
至于say的否定形式可以有两种,但是含义不同。例如:
--Tom didn’t say so. (= Tom didn’t say that there would be a demonstration.)
--Tom said not. (= Tom said there wouldn’t be a demonstration.)
d. if + so/not通常代表一个条件从句。例如:
--If so, I had quite misjudged him.
--Will you be staying another night ? If so (= If you are), we can give you a better room. If not
(= If you aren’t), could you be out of your room by 12:00 ?
--A: I hope Bill won’t come.
--B: If so(= If you hope he won’t come), why did you invite him ?
e. so替代分句时偶尔也出现在句首,主语倒装与否均可。例如:
--A: Oxford will win the boat race; at least, so all my Oxford friends say.
--B: And so say most of the sports writers, too.
--So most of the sports writers say, too.
但是,当主语为代词时,不能倒装。例如:
--A: Most people are backing the Oxford crew.
--B: So I believe; but that doesn’t mean they’ll win.

七组替代词的用法区别/替代 编辑

■ 替代词it与one的区别
一般说来,it表特指,相当于“the+名词”,表示与前面提到的事物为同一物;one表泛指,相当于“a+名词”,表示与前面提到的人或事物为同类,但并非同一。比较:
I can’t find my pen. Have you seen it? 我找不到我的钢笔了,你看到过它吗?
I can’t find my pen. I think I must buy one. 我找不到我的钢笔了,我想我得去买一支。
■替代词one与the one的区别
one用作替代词主要用于替代“a+单数可数名词”,表泛指;若需特指,则用the one。如:
A fast train is one that goes fast. 快车是一种行驶快的火车。
The accident was similar to one that happened in 2005. 这个事故与发生在2005年的事故类似。
Open the drawer on the left, the one with a key in it. 打开左边的抽屉,上面有钥匙的那个。
Here are six rings. Pick out the one you like best. 这里有六枚戒指,选出你最喜欢的一枚。
I want very much to see these films, especially the one you mentioned. 我很想看这些电影,特别是你提到的那一部。
■替代词the one与that的区别
the one与that均可表特指(均为单数意义),前者可用于指人或指事物,但只用于替代单数可数名词;而后者只用于事物,但可用于替代单数可数名词或不可数名词。如:
He said he would have the one near him. 他说他要靠近他的那一个。
You’re the one who knows where to go. 只有你知道该到哪里去。
The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Guangzhou. 北京的天气比广州冷。
A grandparent’s job is easier than that of a parent. 祖父母的任务比父母的任务要轻松一些。
■替代词ones与the ones的区别
ones主要用于替代复数名词,表泛指;若需特指,则用the ones。如:
If you haven’t got a big plate, two small ones will do. 如果没有大盘子,两个小盘子也行。
We still have shortcomings, and very big ones too. 我们还有缺点,而且是很大的缺点。
Do you know the ones who moved here recently? 你认识最近搬到这儿来的那些人吗?
The top front teeth are the ones which are most at risk from tooth decay. 上门齿是最容易受到腐蚀的牙齿。
■替代词that与those的区别
1. that用作替代词主要用于替代“the+单数名词(可数或不可数)”,表特指。如:
A dog’s intelligence is much greater than that of a cat. 狗的智慧比猫的高得多。
A grandparent’s job is easier than that of a parent. 祖父母的任务比父母的任务要轻松一些。
2. those用作替代词主要用于替代复数名词,表特指。如:
It’s up to us to help those in need. 我们有责任帮助那些有困难的人。
It is said that those who eat the most are the least healthy. 据说吃得最多的人身体最差。
Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in. 只有那些预先订票的人可以进去。
■替代词that与it的区别
替代词that与代词it的用法不同,that用于指代前面提到的“同类”事物,而it主要指代前面提到的“同一”事物。如:
The population of China is much larger than that of Japan. 中国人口比日本人口多得多。
I’m taking a raincoat with me in case I need it. 我随身带有雨衣,以备不时不需。
■替代词those与they的区别
替代词those与代词they用法也不同,those是指代前面提到的“同类”事物,而they (以及宾格them)主要指代前面提到的“同一”事物。
Waves of red light are about twice as long as those of blue light. 红色光线的波长约为蓝色波长的两倍。
If the children were to go to the seaside, they would be happy. 如果去海边的话,孩子们会很高兴的。
His books are wonderful. I’ve read every one of them. 他的书写得好极了,我每一本都读过了。

替代 单机游戏/替代 编辑

游戏内容

  游戏名称:替代   英文名称:Alternativa   制作厂商:Centauri Production   游戏发行:IDEA Games, Bohemia Interactive   游戏语种:中文汉化   游戏类型:Point & Click Adventure   游戏版本:完整硬盘版

游戏简介

  这是一款有着科幻复古风格的传统点击式冒险解密游戏,在游戏里,玩家可以看到当代与未来元素相结合的游戏世界(可以参照电影《第五元素》)。配合游戏使用的是CPAL3D引擎,呈现给玩家一个风格独特的世界。只是不同于一般的叙事方式,在这款游戏中,采用的是多线性的叙述方式,故事情节跌宕起伏,并且处处都可以感受到游戏里毛骨悚然的气氛。推理元素、充满历史感和科幻情节的游戏会让玩家大呼过瘾。   游戏中,玩家可以通过故事逐渐了解这个叫Alterniva的世界。它的历史、社会环境、人们的生活状况。同样,如果玩家玩游戏的时候够仔细,会发现诸如此类的细节。主角可以见识到其他被战争毁坏的地区,然而新的问题同样会接踵而至。   游戏里的单一故事并不长,而是借助多个短篇故事通过各方面来集中描述。大量的故事中,玩家会看到当时人们的生活状况和其中存在的各种问题。这样的故事比如强奸案的调查、夜行停尸房、黑客攻击数据库等内容会让玩家们兴奋不已。